This Primary Research Area encompasses diverse programs of research. Included is research on union formation and dissolution, sexual identity and type of union (e.g. same sex), and transition to adulthood. Effects of union transitions have been investigated in multiple research projects, including research on the consequences of single motherhood (for the woman, for the children) and the health benefits of union formation/dissolution more generally. The health of sexual minorities and persons in same-sex partnerships is the subject of ongoing research projects. Transition to adulthood is a core topic for several IPR affiliates. This includes research on educational attainment (with a focus on gender differences, both causes and consequences), and research on partnerships and childbearing in early adulthood. The setting for most of this research is the U.S. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth has served as a key data resource for many of these research projects, but there has also been primary and highly innovative data collection on young adults in Columbus. The main source of external funding for this research is NIH.