IPR affiliates conduct research on both internal and external migration, and most of this research considers both the causes and consequences of migration as a key component of population processes. Several IPR affiliates conduct research on immigration to the U.S., examining associations between immigrant status and outcomes such as health, fertility, and residential segregation. Some of this research focuses on immigration from Mexico, while other projects focus on immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa and from South Asia and entail primary data collection in Columbus. The settings for other research programs on migration are outside the U.S. This includes research on internal migration in Bangladesh, with specific attention to migration as a response to climate change, and migration in Mozambique (both internal and international), with a goal of assessing consequences for children of parental migration. Also falling within this Primary Research Area is research on residential segregation in the U.S. These programs of research have been funded by a mix of NIH awards and grants from other sources.